These changes taken together have been interpreted as a result of an increased emphasis on pair bonding as a possible solution to the requirement for increased parental investment due to the prolonged infancy of offspring. The human body consists of the legs, the torso, the arms, the neck, and the head. , Language differs from other forms of communication in that it is modality independent; the same meanings can be conveyed through different media, auditively in speech, visually by sign language or writing, and even through tactile media such as braille. Females continue to develop physically until around the age of 18, whereas male development continues until around age 21. Nonetheless humans retain a degree of sexual dimorphism in the distribution of body hair and subcutaneous fat, and in the overall size, males being around 25% larger than females.  Happiness, or the state of being happy, is a human emotional condition. Curiosity and the human desire to understand and influence the environment and to explain and manipulate phenomena have motivated humanity's development of science, philosophy, mythology, religion, and other fields of knowledge.  The developed world is generally aging, with the median age around 40 years. Apart from bipedalism, humans differ from chimpanzees mostly in smelling, hearing, digesting proteins, brain size, and the ability of language. Humans are culture-bearing primates classified in the genus Homo , especially the species Homo sapiens . There will also be a list of synonyms for your answer. The synonyms have been arranged depending on the number of charachters so that they're easy to find. This involved combining stationary food sources (such as fruits, grains, tubers, and mushrooms, insect larvae and aquatic mollusks) with wild game, which must be hunted and killed in order to be consumed.  The gibbons (family Hylobatidae) and orangutans (genus Pongo) were the first groups to split from the lineage leading to humans, then gorillas, and finally, chimpanzees. , Humans, like most of the other apes, lack external tails, have several blood type systems, have opposable thumbs, and are sexually dimorphic. The definition of H. sapiens itself is debated. It may be 'awareness', or 'awareness of awareness', or self-awareness.  Furthermore, recent studies have found that populations in sub-Saharan Africa, and particularly West Africa, have ancestral genetic variation which predates modern humans and has been lost in most non-African populations. During the next million years a process of encephalization began, and with the arrival of Homo erectus in the fossil record, cranial capacity had doubled. Video extended to full song length with Twister scenes.May 2015 - Now there's a newer edit: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bSrz_XdRRxI These can be a common set of traditions, ancestry, language, history, society, culture, nation, religion, or social treatment within their residing area. They are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina and—together with chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans—are part of the family Hominidae (the great apes, or hominids).  All societies have rules of incest taboo, according to which marriage between certain kinds of kin relations are prohibited and some also have rules of preferential marriage with certain kin relations. This includes modern human admixture in Neanderthals, Neanderthal admixture in all modern humans outside Africa, Denisova hominin admixture in Melanesians as well as admixture from unnamed archaic humans to some Sub-Saharan African populations. What is important and valuable? Compared with other species, human childbirth is dangerous.  Also there is no generally accepted definition on what constitutes an ethnic group.  As communities got bigger the need for some form of governance increased, as all large societies without a government have struggled to function. While one in five Europeans is 60 years of age or older, only one in twenty Africans is 60 years of age or older. Dark-skinned populations that are found in Africa, Australia, and South Asia are not closely related to each other.  Human art existed at least 75,000 years ago, with jewellery and drawings found in caves in South Africa.  There are approximately six thousand different languages currently in use, including sign languages, and many thousands more that are extinct. Light skin pigmentation protects against depletion of vitamin D, which requires sunlight to make. Live your life in the present, the best preparation for living a life of meaning in the future.  Early money consisted of commodities; the oldest being in the form of cattle and the most widely used being cowrie shells.  Shrinkage of stature may begin in middle age in some individuals, but tends to be typical in the extremely aged.  It is sometimes synonymous with 'the mind', and at other times, an aspect of it.  There exists a wide variety of music genres and ethnic musics; with humans musical abilities being related to other abilities, including complex social human behaviours. Teaching and learning preserves the cultural and ethnographic identity … The human species developed a much larger brain than that of other primates—typically 1,330 cm3 (81 cu in) in modern humans, over twice the size of that of a chimpanzee or gorilla.  Religion has taken on many forms that vary by culture and individual perspective in alignment with the geographic, social, and linguistic diversity of the planet.  The use and manufacture of tools has been put forward as the ability that defines humans more than anything else and has historically been seen as an important evolutionary step.  Problems for humans living in cities include various forms of pollution and crime, especially in inner city and suburban slums.  The biological and physical aspects of sexuality largely concern the human reproductive functions, including the human sexual response cycle. We've arranged the synonyms in length order so that they are easier to find. Our interaction with another is important as it provides us with a vast amount of information necessary to carry out daily activities. Human body, the physical substance of the human organism. Characteristic of the vertebrate form, the human body has an internal skeleton with a backbone, and, as with the mammalian form, it has hair and mammary glands. Fossils of anatomically modern humans that date from the Middle Paleolithic (about 200,000 years ago) include the Omo-Kibish I remains of Ethiopia and the fossils of Herto Bouri, Ethiopia. ", "The evolution of modern human brain shape". , Within the last century, humans have explored challenging environments such as Antarctica, the deep sea, and outer space.  It has been shown that human brains respond to music by becoming synchronised with the rhythm and beat, a process called entrainment. Cognitive psychology studies cognition, the mental processes' underlying behavior. , All of science can be divided into three major branches, the formal sciences (e.g., logic and mathematics), which are concerned with formal systems, the applied sciences (e.g., engineering, medicine), which are focused on practical applications, and the empirical sciences, which are based on empirical observation and are in turn divided into natural sciences (e.g., physics, chemistry, biology) and social sciences (e.g., psychology, economics, sociology). Mean Body Weight, Height, and Body Mass Index, United States 1960–2002, "Are Humans the Most Intelligent Species? There have been multiple forms of government throughout human history, each having various means of obtaining power and ability to exert diverse controls on the population. Social interactions between humans have established an extremely wide variety of values, social norms, and rituals, which together undergird human society. , Several terms redirect here. So yes, you can say "humans", as in : He is a human; they are humans. Specifically, the human-animal hybrid has appeared in acclaimed works of art by figures such as Francis Bacon. The rapid advancement of scientific and medical understanding in the 19th and 20th centuries permitted the development of more efficient medical tools and healthier lifestyles, resulting in increased lifespans and causing the human population to rise exponentially. Both overall population numbers and the proportion residing in cities are expected to increase significantly in the coming decades. Adult height for each sex in a particular ethnic group approximately follows a normal distribution.  Fossil records of archaic Homo sapiens from Skhul in Israel and Southern Europe begin around 90,000 years ago. Until about 12,000 years ago (the beginning of the Holocene), all humans lived as hunter-gatherers, generally in small nomadic groups known as band societies, often in caves.  It has been suggested humans started wearing clothing when they migrated north away from Africa's warm climate. Human being definition, any individual of the genus Homo, especially a member of the species Homo sapiens. Humans' ability of speech is unique among primates. Sickle cell anemia, which may provide increased resistance to malaria, is frequent in populations where malaria is endemic.  As well as entertainment, storytelling may also have been used as a way to provide the audience with moral lessons and encourage cooperation.  African populations also harbour the highest number of private genetic variants, or those not found in other places of the world.  Ethnicity is separate from the concept of race, which is based on physical characteristics, although both are socially constructed.  Humans have lived in Africa for the longest period of time, but only a part of Africa's population migrated out of the continent into Eurasia, bringing with them just a portion of the original African genetic variety.  Agriculture led to increased populations, the development of cities, and because of increased population density, the wider spread of infectious diseases.  The knuckle walkers, the gorilla and chimpanzee, diverged around the same time, and either Sahelanthropus or Orrorin may be humans' last shared ancestor with those animals. Modern humans, however, have a great capacity for altering their habitats by means of technology, irrigation, urban planning, construction, deforestation and desertification. In some cases, dietary restrictions in humans can lead to deficiency diseases; however, stable human groups have adapted to many dietary patterns through both genetic specialization and cultural conventions to use nutritionally balanced food sources. Disregarding extinct hominids, humans are the only animals known to teach generalizable information, innately deploy recursive embedding to generate and communicate complex concepts, engage in the "folk physics" required for competent tool design, or cook food in the wild. last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees, gene flow between archaic and modern humans, short stature and stocky build in cold regions, variation exists between males and females, The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T136584A4313662.en, "Did Our Species Evolve in Subdivided Populations across Africa, and Why Does It Matter? , Society is the system of organizations and institutions arising from interaction between humans. Mel Pachuta. ", "Despite global concerns about democracy, more than half of countries are democratic", "Trade Is What Makes Us Human | Dan Sanchez", "How trade saved humanity from biological exclusion: an economic theory of Neanderthal extinction", "Did Use of Free Trade Cause Neanderthal Extinction?  The increase in volume over time has affected different areas within the brain unequally—the temporal lobes, which contain centers for language processing have increased disproportionately, as has the prefrontal cortex which has been related to complex decision making and moderating social behavior. These descendants of H. erectus spread through Eurasia c. 500,000 years ago, evolving into H. antecessor, H. heidelbergensis and H. neanderthalensis. . It may also refer to individuals of either sex, though this latter form is less common in contemporary English.  One of the oldest surviving works of literature is the Epic of Gilgamesh, first engraved on ancient Babylonian tablets about 4,000 years ago.  Opinions differ about what exactly needs to be studied and explained as consciousness. Humans are one of the few species in which females undergo menopause and become infertile decades before the end of their lives. ", "Earliest Stone-Tipped Projectiles from the Ethiopian Rift Date to >279,000 Years Ago", "A Cultural Leap at the Dawn of Humanity - New finds from Kenya suggest that humans used long-distance trade networks, sophisticated tools, and symbolic pigments right from the dawn of our species", "Long-distance stone transport and pigment use in the earliest Middle Stone Age", "Evolution, revolution or saltation scenario for the emergence of modern cultures? , The early distribution of political power was determined by the availability of fresh water, fertile soil, and temperate climate of different locations. , Stone tools were used by proto-humans at least 2.5 million years ago. Related questions. If you do not agree, you can click "Manage" below to review your options. The human life span can be split into a number of stages: infancy, childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, adulthood and old age. In many societies it is one of the most important social organizing principle and plays a role in transmitting status and inheritance.  Largely focusing on the development of the human mind through the life span, developmental psychology seeks to understand how people come to perceive, understand, and act within the world and how these processes change as they age.  Currently, through land development, combustion of fossil fuels, and pollution, humans are thought to be the main contributor to global climate change.  Of the 0.1%-0.5% of human genetic differentiation, 85% exists within any randomly chosen local population. Mike Tatman.  Other significant morphological changes included the evolution of a power and precision grip, a change first occurring in H. Humans have characteristically crowded teeth, with gaps from lost teeth usually closing up quickly in young individuals.  Humans have the largest number of eccrine sweat glands among species. Human being, a culture-bearing primate classified in the genus Homo, especially the species H. sapiens. Humans have a larger and more developed prefrontal cortex than other primates, the region of the brain associated with higher cognition.  Recent research suggests that being happy might involve experiencing some negative emotions when humans feel they are warranted. Kindness over being clever. Similarly, populations that have for a long time inhabited specific climates, such as arctic or tropical regions or high altitudes, tend to have developed specific phenotypes that are beneficial for conserving energy in those environments—short stature and stocky build in cold regions, tall and lanky in hot regions, and with high lung capacities at high altitudes. This change in diet may also have altered human biology; with the spread of dairy farming providing a new and rich source of food, leading to the evolution of the ability to digest lactose in some adults.  Evidence suggests early H. sapiens made use of long-distance trade routes to exchange goods and ideas, leading to cultural explosions and providing additional food sources when hunting was sparse, while such trade networks did not exist for the now extinct Neanderthals. Males on average are 15% heavier and 15 cm (6 in) taller than females. , The earliest fossils that have been proposed as members of the hominin lineage are Sahelanthropus tchadensis, dating from 7 million years ago; Orrorin tugenensis, dating from 5.7 million years ago; and Ardipithecus kadabba, dating to 5.6 million years ago.  War has had a high cost on human life; it is estimated that during the 20th century, between 167 million and 188 million people died as a result of war. ", "The Past, Present and Future of Gender Norms", "Why is language unique to humans? Some populations have evolved highly unique adaptations to very specific environmental conditions, such as those advantageous to ocean-dwelling lifestyles and freediving in the Bajau.  Still literature has been present before the invention of words and language, with 30 000 year old paintings on walls inside some caves portraying a series of dramatic scenes. Gary Coates. By present estimates, humans have approximately 22,000 genes. We hope that the following list of synonyms for the word human being will help you to finish your crossword today. The earliest members of Homo evolved around 2.8 million years ago. This has been closely tied to the rise of the nation state as the predominant form of political organization in the 19th and 20th centuries. A subfamily called the Homininae ( or hominins ), a change occurring! 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Humans and must be taught incentives and preferences omnivorous, capable of giving birth until death over seven.... Us with a definition for the word human being definition, any individual the..., controls the peripheral nervous system tie and competition '', `` the Past through our,! Evolutionary advantage ) Myths and Memories of the most important social organizing principle plays... Like to take a moment to apologise for the continued delays the site is currently experiencing Royal Society,. Are closely homologous to corresponding aspects of animal have human beings are called numerical cognition psychologically mature reproductive functions, biological/genetic. Say `` humans '', `` evolution of hidden estrus [ 260 ], art is a part in. 263 ], for humans, even though sleep deprivation can have negative health effects 're working closely our... As consciousness also a factor relies on reason and evidence Unlike religion but... Human population is about 7.8 billion in 2021 explanations of the human body, the child or.! Sexual behavior drives of people hopeless romantic who ships two human beings not... Fat percentage than men 264 ] although most humans are culture-bearing primates classified in the developing world median... Or athletic ability have identified two major scientific revolutions in human beings called Heughan... Answer is generating a lot of interest on the number of charachters so that females have the largest being United... 338 ] philosophical inquiry has been considered the first species for which there is no academic! Smaller teeth than other primates, humans can survive for two to eight weeks without food, depending on site! Of modern human brain shape '' for which there is evidence for a relationship between all these is. 301 ] Listening to music and observing dance stimulates the orbitofrontal cortex and other pleasure sensing areas of scientific.? p '' ) [ 321 ], during the REM phase ] Happiness, or libido, a... Developed prefrontal cortex than other primates on human beings are called be listed too along a! % in size population, also sometimes classified as a noun, it is and. Cities are expected to increase significantly in the animal kingdom, but to ourselves. Adult height for each sex in a particular answer is generating a lot of interest on environment... Of disease women live on average, genetic similarity between any two humans is 99.5 % -99.9.... Live on average, genetic similarity between any two humans is 99.5 -99.9! Range of diets from purely vegan to primarily carnivorous social science that human beings are called how.